What are the common toxic and harmful gases in the industry?
Gases are everywhere and there are many types, some of which are toxic gases, especially in the field of industrial production. Among them, there are more than 70,000 commonly used chemicals, and thousands of new chemicals come out every year. Among a wide variety of chemicals, many are toxic chemicals, which may be harmful to the human body during production, use, storage and transportation, and even endanger human life, causing huge catastrophic accidents. Therefore, understanding and mastering the basic knowledge of the harmful effects of toxic chemical substances on the human body is necessary to strengthen the management of toxic chemical substances and prevent their harm to human bodies and the occurrence of poisoning accidents, both for managers and workers.
The common toxic and harmful gases in the industry can be divided into:
1, irritating gas-refers to the gas irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract mucosa. It is a toxic gas often encountered in the chemical industry. There are many types of irritating gases. The most common are chlorine, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, phosgene, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, and dimethyl sulfate.
2. Asphyxiating gas-refers to the toxic gas that can cause hypoxia in the body. Asphyxiating gas can be divided into simple asphyxiating gas, blood asphyxiating gas and cell asphyxiating gas. Such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, nitrobenzene vapor, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide and so on.
Common toxic and harmful chemicals in other industries are:
1. Pesticides-The use of pesticides, including pesticides, fungicides, acaricides, and herbicides, plays an important role in ensuring increased yields of crops, but effective precautions have not been taken during production, transportation, use and storage Can cause poisoning.
2. Organic compounds—Most of them are toxic and harmful substances, such as widely used organic chemicals, such as xylene, carbon disulfide, gasoline, methanol, acetone, and the amino and nitro compounds of benzene, such as aniline and nitro. Benzene, etc.
3. Macromolecular compounds Polymer compounds are not toxic or very toxic, but during the processing and use, free monomers can be released to cause harm to the human body. For example, phenolic resin releases phenol and formaldehyde when heated, which has a stimulating effect. Some polymer compounds are more toxic due to heat and oxidation. For example, polytetrafluoroethylene plastics are decomposed by high temperature to produce tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene, and octafluoroisobutylene, which cause chemical pneumonia or pulmonary edema after inhalation. Most of the monomers commonly used in the production of polymer compounds are harmful to the human body.
1. Harm and prevention of irritating gases
Many industrial production processes exist irritating gases, such as welding, electroplating, smelting, chemical, petroleum and other industries. Most of these gases are corrosive, and enter the human body through the respiratory tract can cause acute poisoning. The common feature of the toxic effects of irritating gases on the body is that they have different degrees of irritation to the eyes, respiratory mucosa and skin. Local damage is usually the main cause, but it can also cause systemic reactions. "Triacid" vapor can both irritate the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and cause skin burns; long-term exposure to low-concentration acid mist can also irritate teeth and cause acid erosion. Chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide and other water-solubility are large, and it is easy to cause damage when wet parts are encountered. For example, after inhaling these gases, the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract dissolve, which directly stimulates the mucous membranes, causing hyperemia, edema, and increased secretion of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, producing chemical inflammatory reactions, such as runny nose, itching, and cough. Nitrogen oxides and phosgene are less water soluble. They rarely cause hydrolysis when passing through the upper respiratory tract mucosa, so the mucosal irritation is slight; however, they can continue to penetrate the bronchi and alveoli and gradually work with the water on the mucous membranes to affect the lung tissue. Produces strong irritation and corrosion effects, and severe pulmonary edema occurs.
The focus of the prevention of irritating gases is to prevent accidents, prevent running, dripping, dripping and leaking, and make good use of exhaust gas recovery and comprehensive utilization. The automation, mechanization and piping of the production process use automatic control technology to automatically adjust to maintain normal operating conditions and prevent accidents; improve the tightness of the equipment and prevent corrosion and cracking of metal equipment; and choose a suitable ventilation method according to the characteristics of the production process. Strengthen personal protection. When exposed to corrosive liquid poisons such as acids and alkalis, wear corrosion-resistant protective equipment, such as polyvinyl chloride, rubber products, rubber gloves, protective glasses, protective rubber shoes, etc .; wear protective masks or protective masks; Skin protection ointment. Strengthen health monitoring, do pre-job and regular physical examinations, and find allergic asthma, allergic skin disease or eczema and other skin exposed areas, chronic respiratory diseases such as eyes and nose, throat, trachea, tuberculosis (including stable period), and Patients with heart disease should not be exposed to irritating gases.
2. Prevention of asphyxiating gas poisoning
Common asphyxiating gases include carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and cyanide. When they enter the body, they impede the oxygen transport ability of the blood or the ability of the tissue to use oxygen, causing damage to the tissue due to lack of oxygen. The main preventive measures are to strengthen airtightness, ventilation, strict rules for safe operation, strengthen publicity and education, popularize first aid and prevention knowledge, and do a good job of health monitoring before and on the job.